Gray rot on strawberries: methods of struggle
Strawberries, like many cultivated plants, can be affected by diseases. One of the dangerous diseases is considered to be strawberry rot. What is this ailment, its types and methods of treatment are discussed in detail in this article.
Species, signs and danger of rot
This disease is fungal in nature, depending on the genus of the pathogen and symptoms, the disease is divided into two types: fruit and root.
Did you know? In Belgium, in Vepion, there is a strawberry museum where visitors can purchase various edible souvenirs from strawberries, as well as try strawberry beer.
- late blight - the outer shell of berries with seeds is compacted, the flesh becomes hard and bitter. After the fruits are covered with dark brown or ink-colored spots, and the rest of the ground part of the bush gradually dries out;
- white rot - the berries are covered with a whitish, fleecy coating, which gradually creeps onto the leaves and stems. After the mycelium has covered the ground part of the bush, it also affects the root system, covering it with putrid mucus;
- gray rot - the fungus penetrates the inside of the berries and ripens in the pulp. When it is ready for propagation, spores appear on the surface of the fruit in the form of fluffy gray mold;
- black rothitting the fruits, makes their flesh watery, discolours the berry. Ripening, the fungus covers the surface of the berry with mucus, gradually turning into black dry spots, with flying spores.
The root type of the disease:
The danger of all types of disease is that spores quickly spread by the wind, affecting the entire planting of strawberries. In addition, fungi are omnivorous - if there are beds next to other cultivated berries, vegetables or root crops, they also fall into the risk zone and can be destroyed by the disease. Tenacious spores tolerate winter in the soil, continuing to “eat” planting in the next season.
The causes of rot on strawberries
Fungi, regardless of their name, develop in a moist and warm environment. As soon as the air temperature rises above + 10 ° С, the spores expect favorable conditions for themselves.
Causes of putrefactive infection:
- bushes closely planted to each other;
- leafy bush, lack of pruning, thinning;
- excessive watering;
- high temperature and lack of ventilation (in the greenhouse);
- lack of weeding;
- insect attacks (spore carriers).
Methods of struggle
Do not cure the disease, then means to doom to destroy not only the beds with berries, but also other crops growing nearby. How to process strawberries in a given situation will help to understand a brief acquaintance with purchased drugs and means from the people.
Today on the market there is a large selection of fungicides for cultivated plants, there are chemical and biological agents.
Broad-spectrum antibacterial biological fungicide, the active component is a strain of hay bacillus. With the help of the drug, planting material is disinfected, planting is prevented and treated. To treat open ground or soil in a greenhouse, a solution for irrigation is prepared in a proportion of 10 ml / 10 l of water. To spray the bushes (per 100 m²), 50 ml are diluted in 10 liters of water.
The chemical preparation belongs to the 3rd class of toxicity, the active substance is cyprodinil. Most effective in the early stages of plant development. The main advantage in the ability to destroy sleeping spores at low temperature (+ 3 ° C). This fact allows you to use the tool as a prophylaxis. For treatment, 2 g of Chorus are diluted in 5 l of water, spraying on a leaf.
The drug does not cause resistance in fungi, therefore, it is often used where other fungicides have failed. Another advantage is safety for plants, beneficial insects and mammals.
Important! Teldor cannot be mixed with other fungicides; it is not advisable to allow soil wetting.
The film that forms after processing the plants is resistant to moisture, which prolongs the effect of the drug. To treat the bushes by spraying, a solution is prepared in a proportion of 8 g / 5 l of water.
In the early stages of the disease, before resorting to chemicals, you can treat with what is at hand.
There is probably an alcoholic solution of iodine in every medicine cabinet. The tool is the first antiseptic and not only for the treatment of wounds. A prophylactic and therapeutic agent for garden plants is prepared from an iodine solution. Among other things, iodine is an important element in the development of crops, favorably affects the enzymatic processes in plant tissues. To process the beds by spraying, prepare a solution with water in a ratio of 10 ml / 10 l.
The mustard plant is used as a repellent, possessing a repelling effect for insects. Mustard powder also contains volatile, has an antibacterial effect, successfully inhibiting the spores of pathogenic fungi. To prepare the solution, you need to take 50 g of powder, pour 5 liters of water and leave for 2 days. The mixture is diluted with water 1: 1.
A weak pink solution of potassium permanganate, called simply “potassium permanganate”, is one of the first disinfection agents:
- the solution is processing tanks, soil;
- pickle seeds;
- disinfect tools.
Important! Do not often use potassium permanganate, an excess of the mineral can adversely affect the development of peduncles.
Also, as iodine, manganese is needed for plants to develop normally, which is used as top dressing and prevention of “vitamin deficiency” in plants. To treat bushes from fruit rot, prepare a solution for spraying: 10 g / 10 l. With root rot, the soil is shed with the same solution.
Plant Processing Recommendations
Treat plants, especially with chemicals, in clear, calm weather. It is not advisable that the drug mixture fall into other plantings. If the weather is cloudy, it is better to postpone the treatment so that the rain does not wash away the remedy. Some drugs can be used in mixtures, combining with other agents.
This approach allows you to cure the plant and prevent other problems. Therefore, before using the product, you should study the instruction: is it possible to combine it in tank mixtures or not. In most cases, one procedure is indispensable, therefore, after a certain interval, re-processing is carried out.
Depending on the toxicity of the drug, treatment can be carried out at a certain stage of the plant. Some products tend to accumulate in the tissues of culture, therefore, during flowering or fruiting, their use is prohibited. During spraying plants should take care of their own protection. Even folk remedies, such as potassium permanganate or iodine, if they get on the skin or mucous membranes can cause serious harm to health.
Growing strawberries in a greenhouse or on the open ground will be successful if you follow the rules of agricultural technology and care, as well as take preventative measures:
- In one place, the culture can be grown no more than 3 years.
- Care must be taken to select predecessors, which reduces the risk of disease.
- Before planting, thoroughly clean the soil from plant debris from the previous culture.
- Seeds or roots of seedlings, seedlings need to be treated with disinfectants.
- The berry area is chosen illuminated, even or elevated, so that there is no stagnation of moisture.
- Be sure to observe the distance between the bushes and between the rows in the garden.
- Weeds need to be regularly weed out, as they thicken the bed and take away food and moisture from the crop, weakening it.
- Plants need regular protection from insects that transmit disease. An effective method is to plant repellents along the perimeter of the bed and in the aisles.
- Preventive spraying with fungicides or insecticides, folk remedies in the form of plant infusions also helps prevent disease and the appearance of insects.
- When feeding plants, it is important not to overdo it with fertilizer, use only rotted organics, since in its fresh form it is rich in microorganisms, including pathogenic ones.
- Perform preventive spraying even after harvesting, since fungi can overwinter in the soil.
- During the growth of the bushes, regularly inspect them for infection in order to identify the disease at an early stage and prevent the death of the entire planting.
- Large berries often, when ripe, touch the soil, which can lead to decay of the fruit. Straw mulch will help to avoid this; it will also inhibit weed growth and protect plant roots from overheating.
Did you know? The Strawberry Festival is held annually in June on the Plugastel Peninsula, France: vibrant themed costumes, a fair and other entertainment.
In case of rot damage, having familiarized yourself with the possible treatment, each plant grower will choose the most effective remedy.